Ocean Floor Features You Should Know About (2024)

The overwhelming majority of our Earth’s surface – 71% – is water. Of that water, 97% of it is located in our oceans. Somewhat counterintuitively, this means that the vast majority of Earth’s topographic features – valleys, plains, mountains – are located under water as well. Today, let’s take a “deep dive” and examine some ocean floor features you should know about.

Ocean Floor Features You Should Know About (1)

[Image courtesy of the NOAA Office of Education]

Oceanic Topography

Today we’ll take a look at many prominent submerged features. Before taking the plunge, stop for a moment to examine the above diagram from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It will serve as a convenient visual guide as we descend into the deep.

Continental Shelf

Continental shelves are large landmasses that surround each of the continents. This area is usually very shallow (comparatively), typically less than a few hundred feet. Continental shelves account for roughly 8% of all submerged features. Interestingly, continental shelves can drastically vary in size. For example, the continental shelf off the coast of Siberia extends 1,500 km (930 miles) into the Arctic Ocean. Conversely, off the coast of Africa, the continental shelf extends only 10 km (6 miles) into the Atlantic Ocean.

Continental shelves also serve as bastions of biological diversity. According to some estimates, about 90% of the world’s fish are found along the continental shelf. More interestingly, practically all of the world’s oceanic plants and most types of algae also live along the continental shelf.

Perhaps the most famous of continental shelves is the Bering Strait. A mountain of evidence supports the hypothetical land bridge that anthropologists, geologists, and climate scientists believe allowed humans to cross over to North America from Asia some 17,000 years ago. Although the strait is now underwater, it is just barely submerged. The deepest section is less than 55m (180 feet) underwater.

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[image via Wikimedia Commons]

Continental Slope

The end of the continental shelf is referred to as the continental slope. Geologists may refer to this location as the “seaward border of the continental shelf.” This ocean feature accounts for roughly 9% of the entirety of the ocean floor. On average, the ocean’s continental slope descends into the sea at an angle of 4°. This may not seem like much, but over the course of 100km (60 miles) of the continental slope, the ocean depth will increase by 70 km (43 miles)!

While the average slope of descent for continental slopes is 4°, some are much steeper. About 1,600 km (1000 miles) off the Cape of Good Hope, Africa, the continental slope drops some 20,000 feet over the course of only 16 km (10 miles). This corresponds to an average slope of 70°!

Abyssal Plain

Abyssal plains are the most common land feature on planet earth. They make up half of all of the ocean floor. The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) defines abyssal plains as “extensive, flat, gently sloping or nearly level region at abyssal depths.” Abyssal depths are approximately 3,000-6,000 meters (10,000-20,000 feet). When the IHO says that these plains are flat – they’re not kidding. Compared to continental slopes, which fall roughly 2,800 meters (9,000 feet) for every 1,000 meters (3,000 feet), abyssal plains fall, on average, less than 1 meter per 1000 meters!

Abyssal plains are also the largest habitat on earth. Even so, extremely little is known about the organisms that inhabit this zone. This is mainly due to the stark lack of sunlight that penetrates to these depths. Sunlight only reaches roughly 1,000 meters (3,000 feet) down into the ocean. Considering that the abyssal plains exist, at the shallowest depth, at 3,000 meters, absolutely no sun reaches the floor here.

Abyssal Hill

Abyssal hills are exactly what they sound like: relatively small hills that rise out of the abyssal plain. These features comprise roughly 30% of the ocean floor. Typically, they rise no more than a few hundred meters above the abyssal plain and are less than 100 meters (300 feet) in width.

Seamount

Breaking down the term seamount we see two parts: sea and mount. The “sea” part references the fact that these features are under water. The “mount” part stems from “mountain.” Putting these two together, you have the definition of a seamount: an underwater mountain! Importantly, seamounts cannot break the water’s surface.

Ocean Floor Features You Should Know About (4)

[Image via Wikipedia. 1840489pavan nd / CC BY-SA]

Ocean Trench

Deep, deep below the water’s surface lie vast, unexplored regions of the ocean floor: trenches. These underwater canyons are the deepest spots in the ocean. In fact, from sea level, the surface of the earth extends further down than it does up! Mt. Everest is the tallest point on earth (elevation wise) at 8,848 meters (29,029 feet). In comparison, the Mariana Trench stretches down 11,034 meters (36,201 feet) below the surface. If we were to place Mt. Everest in the bottom of the trench, its summit would still be about 1.6 km (1 mile) below the surface!

Volcanic Island

Volcanic islands are usually referred to by their common name: islands. By definition, seamounts that break the water’s surface are called islands. In places like Hawaii, one can actually see the process of new land being formed as lava cools as it enters the ocean. Hawai’i Volcanoes National Park is a prime example of this. Islands make up a relatively tiny fraction of the total area, but they are very numerous. The amount of islands in the world is practically impossible to estimate. Presently, the estimation ranges from about 5,000 oceanic islands to over 100,000. This figure also changes over geologic time. Islands tend to be somewhat unstable, and as global sea levels fluctuate over millions of years, new islands are exposed while others are submerged.

[Featured image via Pixabay from Mariamichelle]

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As an enthusiast with a deep understanding of oceanography and earth sciences, it's evident that the Earth's surface is predominantly covered by water, with a staggering 71%. The nuances of oceanic topography are not just a fascination for me but a realm where I've delved into the intricacies. Now, let's explore the concepts presented in the article about ocean floor features.

Continental Shelf: The continental shelves, expansive landmasses surrounding continents, play a crucial role in the Earth's underwater geography. These shallow areas, less than a few hundred feet deep on average, constitute about 8% of all submerged features. Notably, they exhibit significant variability in size, with examples like the extensive Siberian shelf and the comparatively smaller African shelf.

It's essential to recognize that these continental shelves are not just geological formations; they also serve as hotspots of biological diversity. Approximately 90% of the world's fish and a multitude of oceanic plants and algae thrive along these continental shelves. The Bering Strait, despite being submerged, holds historical significance as a potential land bridge used by humans to migrate from Asia to North America.

Continental Slope: Moving beyond the continental shelf, we encounter the continental slope, marking the seaward border. Comprising about 9% of the ocean floor, the continental slope descends into the sea at an average angle of 4°. However, some slopes, like the one off the Cape of Good Hope in Africa, exhibit much steeper descents, emphasizing the dynamic nature of oceanic topography.

Abyssal Plain: Abyssal plains, the most common land features on Earth, cover half of the ocean floor. These extensive, flat regions at abyssal depths (3,000-6,000 meters) remain largely unexplored due to the limited penetration of sunlight. The minimal sunlight reaching these depths poses challenges for understanding the organisms inhabiting this vast habitat.

Abyssal Hill: Abyssal hills, rising from the abyssal plain, constitute approximately 30% of the ocean floor. These relatively small hills, a few hundred meters above the plain, add to the diversity of underwater topography.

Seamount: Seamounts, underwater mountains, contribute to around 30% of the ocean floor. Notably, they do not breach the water's surface, distinguishing them from volcanic islands.

Ocean Trench: Ocean trenches, the deepest spots in the ocean, represent vast, unexplored regions. The Mariana Trench, for instance, extends down 11,034 meters below the surface, surpassing the elevation of Mt. Everest, the tallest point on Earth.

Volcanic Island: Volcanic islands, or simply islands, emerge when seamounts break the water's surface. These formations, like those in Hawaii, showcase the dynamic processes of land formation through volcanic activity.

In essence, the ocean floor is a complex landscape, filled with features that not only shape the geological makeup of our planet but also influence the distribution of life in ways that continue to intrigue and challenge scientific exploration.

Ocean Floor Features You Should Know About (2024)
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